Weir vaccinator, 1831-1870
A Weir vaccinator was used to introduce cowpox lymph material into the body via scratches made by scarification. Cowpox gives immunity against smallpox. The four small blades were used to scratch the skin lightly in a cross-hatch pattern, not producing too much blood. The sharp pointed blade was used to collect the lymph material from a pustule. Pustules are skin blisters filled with pus that appear approximately five to eight days after vaccination. The blade was also used to apply the lymph to the cuts made on the skin. The vaccinator was designed by Graham Weir, a physician, sometime before 1866.