Field surgical pannier set in case

Made:
1914-1918 in United Kingdom
Field surgical pannier set, complete, British, 1905 pattern

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Field surgical pannier set, complete, British, 1905 pattern
Science Museum Group Collection
© The Board of Trustees of the Science Museum

Field surgical pannier set, complete, for use by British armed forces. The contents follow the 1905 pattern but this example was provided for use during the First World War, 1914-1918.

This large medical and surgical instrument set provided a wide range of equipment that may be needed by a frontline medical unit attached to the army. Equipment is supplied to sterilise the instruments before surgery, anaesthetise patients, perform amputations and trephinations, and includes instruments to open up the body and stitch up wounds. The kit also contains a saline infusion apparatus. Saline is used to wash wounds, to dilute drugs and also as a substitute for blood plasma. In the foreground in the blue lined case is an aspirator used to remove liquids and gases from the body.

The instruments were made by at least eight different surgical and medical instrument makers and the chemicals were made by Burroughs, Wellcome & Co. The kit would have been used in British Army field hospitals near the front line. Although the defined list of contents for the pannier pre-dates the First World War by nearly a decade, it almost certainly saw use during that conflict.

Details

Category:
Emergency Medicine
Object Number:
1981-1850
Materials:
complete, wicher, canvas, leather, steel (metal), velvet, brass (copper, zinc alloy), cotton (textile), paper (fibre product) and textile
Measurements:
overall (surgical instruments in a wooden box-open): 60 mm x 446 mm x 340 mm, 5.074 kg
overall (pannier): 410 mm x 750 mm x 360 mm,
overall (surgical instruments in a wooden box-closed): 97 mm x 446 mm x 165 mm, 5.074 kg
type:
field surgical pannier

Parts

Spencer Wells-type forceps

Spencer Wells-type forceps

16 pairs of Spencer Wells type artery forceps, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905 pattern but for use during the First World War, 1914-1918


Artery forceps are used to control bleeding from blood vessels by clamping down on the artery. A locking mechanism at the handle keeps them in place. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Thomas Spencer Wells (1818-1897) was an English surgeon who became surgeon to Queen Victoria between 1863 and 1896. He developed the rachet locking mechanism holding the forceps in position. His second design had shorter jaws to increase compression and were ridged to improve grip. By being held closed, they could also not get trapped in the body's tissues or muscles. Prior to Spencer Well's designs, an assistant had to hold the forceps closed. The number of them in this kit is a testament to how popular they were and still are today.

Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt1
type:
artery forceps
Pair of curved scissors

Pair of curved scissors

Curved scissors, heavy duty, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905


Scissors are used to cut tissues within the body during an operation. They can be curved or straight, blunt or sharp tipped and come in a variety of sizes. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 153 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt2
type:
scissors
Pair of curved scissors

Pair of curved scissors

Curved scissors, heavy duty, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905


Scissors are used to cut tissues within the body during an operation. They can be curved or straight, blunt or sharp tipped and come in a variety of sizes. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 130 mm x 42 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt3
type:
scissors
Stevenson-type forceps

Stevenson-type forceps

Stevenson type bullet forceps, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


The shaped jaws of the forceps were used to keep a tight grip on any bullets, shrapnel or fragments of metal to be removed from people's body. The rachet at the top of the handles, keeps the forceps in position, in case limited assistance is available.

Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. William Flack Stevenson (1844-1922), an army surgeon born in Ireland, who served in the Royal Artillery and at the Royal Army Medical School. From his experiences he wrote 'Wounds in War, the Mechanism of their Production and their Treatment' in 1897 and remained a authority on the subject until the First World War.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 240 mm x 60 mm, .08 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt4
type:
bullet forceps
Hernia director

Hernia director

Key type hernia director, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


A hernia is when an internal part of the body pushes through the muscles or tissue wall. Usually found between the chest and the hips, hernias show as a small lump on the body. If the hernia starts to cut off the blood supply to tissues or organs or if it becomes blocked, an emergency operation is needed. A hernia director is used to guide a surgical knife to help repair the blockage or restore the blood flow.

Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Charles Aston Key (1793-1849) was an English surgeon who specialised in removing bladder stones and hernias. He was also an early adopter of anaesthetics.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 162 mm x 14 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt5
type:
hernia directors
Amputation knife

Amputation knife

Liston type amputation knife, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Amputation knives are used for cutting the tissue and muscle around a limb to reveal the bones. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons often developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Robert Liston (1797-1847), a Scottish surgeon, invented this type of amputation knife. Liston knives have two different edges on the blade, which improves efficiency during operations – Liston was renowned for his speed and precision. Speed was essential in a time both before anaesthesia and understanding about infection to ensure patients survived the surgery. Liston's quickest amputation was in two and half minutes. Liston also carried out the first public surgery with either in Europe in 1846.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 265 mm x 22 mm, .14 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt6
type:
amputation knifes
Ankle-joint resection knife

Ankle-joint resection knife

Syme type ankle joint resection knife, by Mayer and meltzer, London, 1905


Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons often developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. James Syme (1799-1870) was a Scottish surgeon, who developed ways of carrying out foot amputations that kept the heel pad intact so patients can still put weight on the leg, with or without a prosthetic limb. Developed in 1834, it is still used today. Syme also mentored Joseph Lister, developer of antisepsis. Lister's wife Agnes, who assisted during his many experiments was also Syme's daughter.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 220 mm x 19 mm, .12 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt7
type:
resection knifes
Scalpel

Scalpel

Scalpel, by Mayer and meltzer, London, 1905


Scalpels with sharp blades are used to make incisions during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 230 mm x 15 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt8
type:
scalpels
Scalpel

Scalpel

Scalpel, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Scalpels with sharp blades are used to make incisions during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 176 mm x 11 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt9
type:
scalpels
Curved bistoury

Curved bistoury

Bistoury, curved, fine point, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 178 mm x 18.8 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt10
type:
bistouries
Curved bistoury

Curved bistoury

Curved, fine point, bistoury, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 172 mm x 11 mm, .02 mm,
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt11
type:
bistouries
Curved bistoury

Curved bistoury

Bistoury, straight, poke end, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 180 mm x 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt12
type:
bistouries
Curved bistoury

Curved bistoury

Bistoury, curved, probe end, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 173 mm x 11 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt13
type:
bistouries
Hernia knife

Hernia knife

Hernia knife, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 176 mm x 14 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt14
type:
hernia knifes
Bistoury, straight, fine point

Bistoury, straight, fine point

Bistoury, straight, fine point, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 175 mm x 13 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt15
type:
bistouries
Scalpel with raspatory (trepanning scalpel)

Scalpel with raspatory (trepanning scalpel)

Scalpel with raspatory (trepanning scalpel), by mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 164 mm x 10 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt16
type:
scalpel
Scalpel, by Arnold and Sons

Scalpel, by Arnold and Sons

Scalpel, by Arnold and Sons, London


Scalpels with sharp blades are used to make incisions during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 140 mm x 10 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt17
type:
scalpels
Scalpel

Scalpel

Scalpel, by J.H. Montague, London


Scalpels with sharp blades are used to make incisions during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 4 mm x 165 mm x 12 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt18
type:
scalpels
Scalpel

Scalpel

Scalpel, point broken off, by Mayer Meltzer, London, 1905


Scalpels with sharp blades are used to make incisions during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 150 mm x 10 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt19
type:
scalpels
Suture needle

Suture needle

Brook type terminal eye suture needle, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 118 mm x 79 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt20
type:
suture needles
Pair of artery forceps

Pair of artery forceps

Wakley type fenestrated artery forceps, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Artery forceps are used to control bleeding from blood vessels by clamping down on the artery. A locking mechanism at the handle keeps them in place. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Thomas Henry Wakley (1821-1907), was an English surgeon who developed artery forceps with a window in each jaw, which it made it easier to place a stitched loop on a vessel. He was also the son of Thomas Wakley, surgeon and founder of the medical journal The Lancet.

Measurements:
overall: 9.5 mm x 120 mm x 9.5 mm, .01 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt21
type:
artery forceps
Skull elevator

Skull elevator

Horsley type skull elevator, with fulcrum, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


A skull elevator is used to lift fractures of the skull bones to prevent futher injury to the brain. Made of nickel-plated steel, these could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The long arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

It was invented by Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916), an English surgeon and physiologist who pioneered the discipline of neurosurgery in the late 1800s.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 161 mm x 16 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt22
type:
skull elevator
Pair of dissecting forceps

Pair of dissecting forceps

Dissecting forceps, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Dissecting forceps are used to hold tissue during surgical procedures. Made of nickel-plated steel, these could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The long arrow on the forceps shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 11 mm x 130 mm x 34 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt24
type:
dissecting forceps
Trocar

Trocar

Pearse's bladder trocar, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 126 mm x 142 mm x 69 mm, .05 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt25
type:
bladder trocars
Cannula for use with bladder trocar

Cannula for use with bladder trocar

Silver cannula, for use with Pearse's bladder trocar, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt26
type:
canulae
Catheter for use with bladder trocar

Catheter for use with bladder trocar

Catheter for use with Pearse's bladder trocar, no maker's name, silvered

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 105 mm x 42 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt27
type:
catheters
Trephine, no maker's name

Trephine, no maker's name

Trephine, no maker's name (no handle) (to fit with part 46 handle)

Measurements:
overall: 116.2 mm x 29.6 mm,
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt28
type:
trephines
Trocar

Trocar

Straight trocar, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 14.6 mm x 118.6 mm x 14.7 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel and plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt29
type:
trocars
Cannula, silver, for use with straight trocar (part 29)

Cannula, silver, for use with straight trocar (part 29)

Cannula, silver, for use with straight trocar (part 29), by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt30
type:
canulae
Pair of surgical retractors

Pair of surgical retractors

Two Canny Ryall type retractors, by Mayer and Meltzer, London 1905


Retractors are used to hold open parts of the body so surgeons can have a better view of where they are operating. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Edward Canny Ryall (1870-1922) was an Irish surgeon, who focused on urology, also establishing All Saints' Hospital in 1911 with his own funds.

Measurements:
overall: 16 mm x 200 mm x 18 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt32
type:
retractors
Surgical retractor

Surgical retractor

Canny Ryall type retractor, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Retractors are used to hold open parts of the body so surgeons can have a better view of where they are operating. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Edward Canny Ryall (1870-1922) was an Irish surgeon, who focused on urology, also establishing All Saints' Hospital in 1911 with his own funds.

Measurements:
overall: 27 mm x 220 mm x 55 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt33
type:
retractors
Surgical retractor

Surgical retractor

Canny Ryall type retractor, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Retractors are used to hold open parts of the body so surgeons can have a better view of where they are operating. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Edward Canny Ryall (1870-1922) was an Irish surgeon, who focused on urology, also establishing All Saints' Hospital in 1911 with his own funds.

Measurements:
overall: 24 mm x 205 mm x 45 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt34
type:
retractors
Intestinal needles

Intestinal needles

Packet of three straight intestinal needles, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Needles threaded with suture material, such as nylon or gut, are used to join up or close the edges of wounds.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 65 mm x 30 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
packet, paper and needle, steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt35
type:
intestinal needles
Straight and curved surgical needles

Straight and curved surgical needles

Packet of 12 Hagedorn type needles, straight and curved, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Werner Hagedorn (1831-1894) was a German surgeon who invented these surgical suture needles, which are curved with flattened sides. The needles are threaded with suture material, such as nylon or gut, and are used to join up or close the edges of wounds.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 73 mm x 22 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
packet, paper and needle, steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt36
type:
needles
Half-curved needles

Half-curved needles

Packet of six half curved needles, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Needles threaded with suture material, such as nylon or gut, are used to join up or close the edges of wounds.

Measurements:
overall: 5 mm x 73 mm x 22 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
packet, paper and needle, steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt37
type:
needles
Ligature silk

Ligature silk

Lank of ligature silk


Used to suture wounds and during operations, silk could not be absorbed by the body, meaning additional operations were required. By treating with heat or chemicals, the silk was sterilied to prevent infection being introduced into a person's body. By the 1940s, silk was replaced by synthetic fibres.

Measurements:
overall: 25 mm x 130 mm x 15 mm,
Materials:
silk
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt38
type:
sutures
Tracheotomy tube

Tracheotomy tube

Silver tracheotomy tube, dilating, Fuller type, with cannula, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Tracheostomy tubes are used to provide an airway in someone's windpipe in an emergency. An opening is created in their neck and a tube placed inside to help them get air and oxygen. Some people have tracheotomy tubes for the rest of their lives, which have valves which can be opened and closed, ensuring that they have the option to speak.

Like other tracheostomy tubes, this example has an inner and outer tube. The inner tube is solid but the outer tube is split into two hooks or flanges, that can be used to pass a tape around, fixing the tube in place around the neck.

Plastic Fuller type tubes are still used.

Measurements:
overall: 36.7 mm x 35.6 mm x 24.5 mm,
Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt39
type:
tracheotomy cannulae
Tracheotomy tube

Tracheotomy tube

Silver tracheotomy tube, dilating, Fuller's, with cannula, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Tracheostomy tubes are used to provide an airway in someone's windpipe in an emergency. An opening is created in their neck and a tube placed inside to help them get air and oxygen. Some people have tracheotomy tubes for the rest of their lives, which have valves which can be opened and closed, ensuring that they have the option to speak.

Like other tracheostomy tubes, this example has an inner and outer tube. The inner tube is solid but the outer tube is split into two hooks or flanges, that can be used to pass a tape around, fixing the tube in place around the neck.

Plastic Fuller type tubes are still used.

Measurements:
overall: 38.7 mm x 42 mm x 28.4 mm, .0005 kg
Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt40
type:
tracheotomy cannulae
Amputation saw

Amputation saw

Amputation saw, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905


Amputation saws are used to cut through bones of limbs. During the First World War, 41,000 service people underwent amputations, losing one or more limbs. Amputations were needed as limbs were severely damaged from explosions or machine gun fire or to prevent or treat infection. In a time before antibiotics and fighting happening in muddy farmland infection was a life threatening risk.

Measurements:
overall: 16 mm x 340 mm x 92 mm, .3 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt41
type:
amputation saws
Fergusson saw

Fergusson saw

Fergusson saw, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 18 mm x 295 mm x 26.6 mm, .12 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt42
type:
saws
Ballance's double scoop

Ballance's double scoop

Ballance's double scoop, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


With two round sharp ends, a scoop is used to remove tissue or bone from the body during an operation. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons often developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. It is possible that this scoop as developed by Sir Hamilton Ashley Ballance (1867-1936) or Sir Charles Alfred Ballance (1856-1936) who were brothers.

Measurements:
overall: 22 mm x 181 mm x 18.5 mm, .0005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt43
type:
scoops
Pair of bone forceps

Pair of bone forceps

Liston bone forceps, straight, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons often developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. Robert Liston (1797-1847), a Scottish surgeon, invented this type of bone cutter. Liston was renowned for his speed and precision. Speed was essential in a time both before anaesthesia and understanding about infection to ensure patients survived the surgery. Liston's quickest amputation was in two and half minutes. Liston also carried out the first public surgery with either in Europe in 1846.

Measurements:
overall: 28.5 mm x 202 mm x 33 mm, .28 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt44
type:
bone forceps
Surgical needleholder

Surgical needleholder

Universal needleholder, with spring and catch, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Needle holders are used during surgery to help surgeons accurately stitch tissue and blood vessels. Made of nickel-plated steel, thiscould be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 6.1 mm x 157 mm x 45.4 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt45
type:
needle holders
Trephine, by Mayer and Meltzer

Trephine, by Mayer and Meltzer

Trephine, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905

Measurements:
overall: 23.6 mm x 120.5 mm x 98.4 mm, .22 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt46
type:
trephines
Bone-holding forceps

Bone-holding forceps

Fergusson lion bone-holding forceps, Medical Supply, London


Lion forceps are used to hold bones open during realignment or repairing fractures. They are possibly called lion forceps due to the and shape of the forceps. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. William Fergusson (1808-1877) was a Scottish surgeon, known for his surgical speed and developed these tools to give a firm old on the bone with two sets of teeth. Speed was essential in a time before anaesthesia to ensure patients survived the operation. As an early adopter of anaesthetics, he developed a range of operations for harelips, and amputations. Serving Queen Victoria and her family between 1847 and 1877.

Measurements:
overall: 12 mm x 182 mm x 37.9 mm, .14 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt47
type:
bone forceps
Pin-cutting forceps

Pin-cutting forceps

Pin-cutting forceps, Medical Supply, London


Pin cutting forceps are used to remove wire and pins used to repair bones during an opeartion. The ridged handles give the surgeon a good grasp. However, these examples have a ridged jaw so are potentially bone holding forceps.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 140.2 mm x 39.1 mm, .1 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt48
type:
pin-cutting forceps
Pair of dressing forceps

Pair of dressing forceps

Dressing forceps, British


Used to hold gauze and other materials used to cover and protect wounds, after an operation, these could also be used to remove infected tissue or debris from the body. Made of nickel-plated steel, this could be sterilised in heat or chemicals so they could be re-used. The arrow on the handle shows it was made for military use.

Measurements:
overall: 11.3 mm x 123.5 mm x 18.5 mm, .012 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt49
type:
dressing forceps
Metal catheter

Metal catheter

Metal catheter, with stylet, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. The metal instrument could be sterilised by heat or chemicals and re-used.

Measurements:
overall: 16.1 mm x 260 mm x 62.1 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
metal, silvered
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt50
type:
catheters
Silver catheter

Silver catheter

Silver catheter, with stylet size 3, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. The metal instrument could be sterilised by heat or chemicals and re-used.

Measurements:
overall: 13.8 mm x 230 mm x 48.1 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt51
type:
catheters
Silver catheter

Silver catheter

Silver catheter, with stylet, size 5, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. The metal instrument could be sterilised by heat or chemicals and re-used.

Measurements:
overall: 14.8 mm x 230 mm x 59.1 mm, .0005 kg
Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt52
type:
catheters
Sponge probang

Sponge probang

Sponge probang, by Mayer and Meltzer, London, 1905


A probang is a flexible piece of material with a sponge at the end of it to remove something from the throat or food pipe. It could also be used to apply medications if needed. Until the development of imagining technologies such as X-rays in te late 1890s, practitioners relied on what they could feel through the probang. Patients were recommended to drink oil or egg whites to make it easier for the probang to pass through their throat.

Measurements:
overall: 20 mm x 410 mm x 20 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated and sponge
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt53
type:
probangs
Surgical probe

Surgical probe

Probe, silver, with eye


Probes are used to investigate inside the body by touch, or gently move tissue out of the way, making it easier to see. During the First World War, X-rays were starting to be used, so medical teams could see solid items, such as bullets or fragments inside the body.

Materials:
silver
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt54
type:
probes
Surgical probe

Surgical probe

Probe, silver (?)


Probes are used to investigate inside the body by touch, or gently move tissue out of the way, making it easier to see. During the First World War, X-rays were starting to be used, so medical teams could see solid items, such as bullets or fragments inside the body.

Materials:
metal
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt55
type:
probes
Surgical probe

Surgical probe

Probe, silver (?)


Probes are used to investigate inside the body by touch, or gently move tissue out of the way, making it easier to see. During the First World War, X-rays were starting to be used, so medical teams could see solid items, such as bullets or fragments inside the body.

Materials:
metal
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt56
type:
probes
Catheter

Catheter

Gum elastic catheter, perished, plastic top


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. Gum elastic or rubber was flexible enough to pass through the body, but rigid enough to maintain its shape.

Materials:
rubber, gum elastic and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt57
type:
catheters
Catheter

Catheter

Gum elastic catheter, perished, plastic top


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. Gum elastic or rubber was flexible enough to pass through the body, but rigid enough to maintain its shape.

Materials:
rubber, gum elastic and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt58
type:
catheters
Catheter

Catheter

Gum elastic catheter, perished, plastic top


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. Gum elastic or rubber was flexible enough to pass through the body, but rigid enough to maintain its shape.

Materials:
rubber, gum elastic and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt59
type:
catheters
Catheter

Catheter

Gum elastic catheter, perished, plastic top


Catheters are tubes used to empty the bladder or to widen blockages in the male urethra. Gum elastic or rubber was flexible enough to pass through the body, but rigid enough to maintain its shape.

Materials:
rubber, gum elastic and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt60
type:
catheters
Screw adjustment tourniquet

Screw adjustment tourniquet

Tourniquet with screw adjustment, by Medical Supply, London, part of the field surgical pannier set, 1905 pattern, for use by British armed forces during the First World War, 1914-1918.


Applying a tourniquet to a wounded arm or leg to control bleeding is a key aspect of emergency treatment. But despite centuries of battlefield use, their use during the First World War was fiercely contested. After the initial application, long delays before there was further medical attention, including the removal of the tourniquet, could starve damaged limbs of blood, leading to unnecessary amputations and even death.

Measurements:
overall: 40 mm x 480 mm x 45 mm, .1 kg
Materials:
brass , fabric and leather
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt61
type:
tourniquets
Two Samway type tourniquets

Two Samway type tourniquets

Two Samways type tourniquets, by Maw, London, 1905


Applying a tourniquet to a wounded arm or leg to control bleeding is a key aspect of emergency treatment. But despite centuries of battlefield use, their use during the First World War was fiercely contested. After the initial application, long delays before there was further medical attention, including the removal of the tourniquet, could starve damaged limbs of blood, leading to unnecessary amputations and even death.

Developed by Dr Daniel West Samways (1857-1931) at Guy's Hospital in 1892, the tourniquet consisted of a rubber tube with two fasteners of Samway's design. One was in the shape of an anchor and the other in the shape of a grapnel. Only one was required to hold the tournqiuet in place. However, there was no way of easily regulating the pressure. The pressure is also through the narrow tube so there is a potential fordamage to the nerves and arteries underneath.

Materials:
rubber and metal
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt62
type:
tourniquets
Eye shades

Eye shades

Two single eye shades, flesh coloured outride, green in, with ribbon


Eye shades were used to protect the eyes after an injury from shrapnel or bullets or from the effects of mustard gas. Green on one side, and a pink flesh colour on the other, these are reversible. The pink flesh colour was to make them less obvious for wearers who were Caucasian but no consideration was given to service personnel from Commonwealth or countries under British Empire rule. It is possible the green colour was thought to be less irritating to the eye.

Materials:
celluloid
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt63
type:
eye shades
Double eye shades

Double eye shades

Three double eye shades, flesh coloured coutride, green in, two with ribbon


Eye shades were used to protect the eyes after an injury from shrapnel or bullets or from the effects of mustard gas. Green on one side, and a pink flesh colour on the other, these are reversible. The pink flesh colour was to make them less obvious for wearers who were Caucasian but no consideration was given to service personnel from Commonwealth or countries under British Empire rule. It is possible the green colour was thought to be less irritating to the eye.

Measurements:
overall: 1 mm x 141 mm x 55 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
celluloid
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt64
type:
eye shades
Eye bath

Eye bath

Clear glass eye bath, pedestal foot


Eye baths are a way of applying a liquid medicine or a simple wash to a sensitive part of the body. Once the ceramic bowl was filled with a liquid, the patient would place the bath over one eye, tilt the head back and open and close their eye repeatedly in the liquid. The bowl is curved to fit the socket of the eye and avoid spillage. Such treatment may have been needed for an infection or to remove an irritation.

Measurements:
overall: 66 mm 41 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt65
type:
eye baths
Eye bath

Eye bath

Blue glass eye bath, pedestal foot


Eye baths are a way of applying a liquid medicine or a simple wash to a sensitive part of the body. Once the ceramic bowl was filled with a liquid, the patient would place the bath over one eye, tilt the head back and open and close their eye repeatedly in the liquid. The bowl is curved to fit the socket of the eye and avoid spillage. Such treatment may have been needed for an infection or to remove an irritation.

Measurements:
overall: 69 mm 49 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt66
type:
eye baths
Eye bath

Eye bath

Clear glass eye bath, pedestal foot


Eye baths are a way of applying a liquid medicine or a simple wash to a sensitive part of the body. Once the ceramic bowl was filled with a liquid, the patient would place the bath over one eye, tilt the head back and open and close their eye repeatedly in the liquid. The bowl is curved to fit the socket of the eye and avoid spillage. Such treatment may have been needed for an infection or to remove an irritation.

Measurements:
overall: 47 mm 37 mm, .04 kg
Materials:
glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt67
type:
eye baths
Nail brushes

Nail brushes

Two nail brushes, wood and bristle


Prior to any operation, the surgical team thoroughly clean their hands, including scrubbing under the nails with brushes. By the end of the First World War, surgeons wore sterile rubber or latex gloves to prevent infection during the operation. These are both examples of aseptic surgery.

Materials:
wood and bristle
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt68
type:
nail brushes
Tray

Tray

Tin tray, rectangular


Each instrument had its place within a field surgical kit, so it could be easily stored and moved. Rectangular tin trays could also act as holders for instruments during operations.

Measurements:
overall: 45 mm x 455 mm x 179 mm, .5 kg
Materials:
tin
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt69
type:
trays
Tray

Tray

Tin tray, rectangular, with Mayer and Meltzer label


Each instrument had its place within a field surgical kit, so it could be easily stored and moved. Rectangular tin trays could also act as holders for instruments during operations.

Measurements:
overall: 4 mm x 455 mm x 179 mm, .46 kg
Materials:
tin
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt70
type:
trays
Syringe, part of Potain aspirator

Syringe, part of Potain aspirator

Syringe, part of Potain aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, West Smithfield, London, 1905 (with parts 72-80)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and needles. It was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Tube, part of Potain's aspirator

Tube, part of Potain's aspirator

Tube, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905, (see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 10 mm x 200 mm x 120 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
metal , rubber and glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt72
type:
tubes
Stopper, part of Potain's aspirator

Stopper, part of Potain's aspirator

Stopper, with taps, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and needles. It was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 35 mm x 81 mm x 82 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated and rubber
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt73
type:
stoppers
Tap, part of Potain's aspirator

Tap, part of Potain's aspirator

Tap, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe. The tap controls the flow of fluid.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 7 mm x 50 mm x 35 mm, .02 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt74
type:
taps
Trocar and cannula

Trocar and cannula

Trocar and cannula, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 140 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt75
type:
trocars
Trocar, part of Potain's aspirator

Trocar, part of Potain's aspirator

Trocar, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 182 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt76
type:
trocars
Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 ( see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 142 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt77
type:
cannulae
Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 ( see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 139 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt78
type:
cannulae
Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 ( see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 140 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt79
type:
cannulae
Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot

Cannula and blunt pilot, part of Potain's aspirator, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 ( see part 71)


An aspirator is used to remove fluid or gas by suction from the body. This piece is just one part of the set which includes a syringe or collection bottle, and tubing. The metal needle or cannula would be placed into the body and connected to the syringe.

This type of aspirator was developed in 1869 by Pierre Carl Édouard Potain (1825-1901), a French doctor who specialised in diagnosing and treating the heart and lungs. Surgical textbooks of the 1970s, were still giving instruction on its use.

Measurements:
overall: 141 mm 10 mm, .005 kg
Materials:
steel, nickel plated
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt80
type:
cannulae
Fergusson's lion forceps

Fergusson's lion forceps

Fergusson's lion forceps, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (in canvas roll with part 82)


Lion forceps are used to hold bones open during realignment or repairing fractures. They are possibly called lion forceps due to the and shape of the forceps. Helped by surgical instrument makers, surgeons developed their own tools, often naming them after themselves. William Fergusson (1808-1877) was a Scottish surgeon, known for his surgical speed and developed these tools to give a firm old on the bone with two sets of teeth. Speed was essential in a time before anaesthesia to ensure patients survived the operation. As an early adopter of anaesthetics, he developed a range of operations for harelips, and amputations. Serving Queen Victoria and her family between 1847 and 1877.

Measurements:
overall: 18 mm x 225 mm x 46 mm, 0.274 kg
Materials:
steel (metal) , canvas and cotton (textile)
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt81
type:
lion forceps
Hoffmann's gouge forceps

Hoffmann's gouge forceps

Hoffmann's gouge forceps, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905 (in canvas roll with part 81)

Measurements:
overall: 17 mm x 196 mm x 48 mm, 0.266 kg
Materials:
steel (metal) , canvas and cotton (textile)
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt82
type:
gouge forceps
Sterilizer for instruments

Sterilizer for instruments

Sterilizer for instruments, with fold up legs and spirit burner, by Arnold and Sons, London, 1905

Materials:
steel (metal)
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt83
type:
sterilizers
Stethoscope, metal tubing

Stethoscope, metal tubing

Stethoscope, metal tubing, can be disassembled, by Maw, London, 1905


Stethoscopes are used to listen to the inside of the body. Breathing and heart beats can be listened to and interpreted to understand the inner workings of a person's body and give clues on what treatments to use.

Measurements:
overall: 533 mm x 111 mm x 24 mm,
Materials:
steel, nickel plated and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt84
type:
stethoscope
Stomach tube

Stomach tube

Jaques type stomach tube, rubber, by Maw, London

Measurements:
overall: 70 mm x 140 mm x 130 mm, .08 kg
Materials:
rubber and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt85
type:
stomach tubes
Rubber tubing

Rubber tubing

Rubber tubing, three perished pieces

Materials:
rubber, perished
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt86
type:
tubes
Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate

Bottle of tablets of potassium permanganate, by Burroughs Wellcome and Co., London


Dark purple in colour, potassium permanganate has disinfecting and astringent qualities, meaning it can be used to dry the skin, and contract tissues, reducing swelling. It is still used as a wet dressing for wounds on the skin’s surface that are blistered or have lots of pus. It is diluted and only used on the surface of the skin.

Measurements:
overall: 115 mm 25 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
glass , cork and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt87
type:
bottles
Poison bottle of mercuric chloride

Poison bottle of mercuric chloride

Blue poison bottle of mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) by Burroughs Wellcome and Co., London

Measurements:
overall: 112 mm 47 mm, .28 kg
Materials:
glass , cork and plastic
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt88
type:
poison bottles
Poison bottle, with contents

Poison bottle, with contents

Glass bottle of brown liquid, label illegible except for word `Poison', ground glass stopper

Measurements:
overall: 150 mm x 60 mm x 60 mm, .44 kg
Materials:
glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt89
type:
bottles
Carbolic acid crystals

Carbolic acid crystals

Glass bottle of carbolic acid crystals, ground glass stopper, by Burgoyne, Burbidges and Co., Coleman Street, London

Measurements:
overall: 150 mm x 60 mm x 60 mm, .5 kg
Materials:
glass
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt90
type:
bottles
Tubes of chloroform

Tubes of chloroform

Four Sealed glass tubes containing 2oz chloroform, each in cardboard box, by Burgoyne, Burbidges and Co., Coleman Street, London


Liquid chloroform was used as an anaesthetic from the late 1840s until the 1950s. The liquid would be dropped onto a cloth face mask and the vapours inhaled by the patient. Devices to administer chloroform, giving control over the concentration of the anaesthetic agent and to use chloroform in combination with other gases and liquids such as ether were developed from the 1870s onwards. During the First World War, anaesthetics became recognised as a speciality. Rather than a general approach, anaesthetics became tailored to each patient.

Materials:
glass and cardboard
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt91
type:
bottles
Tubes of chloroform

Tubes of chloroform

Three Sealed glass tubes, containing 2oz chloroform, each in cardboard box, by Duncan, Flockhart and Co. Edinburgh and London


Liquid chloroform was used as an anaesthetic from the late 1840s until the 1950s. The liquid would be dropped onto a cloth face mask and the vapours inhaled by the patient. Devices to administer chloroform, giving control over the concentration of the anaesthetic agent and to use chloroform in combination with other gases and liquids such as ether were developed from the 1870s onwards. During the First World War, anaesthetics became recognised as a speciality. Rather than a general approach, anaesthetics became tailored to each patient.

Materials:
glass and cardboard
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt92
type:
bottles
Bottles, empty, once containing chloroform

Bottles, empty, once containing chloroform

Seventeen empty glass bottles of chloroform, cork stopper, each in carboard box, by Duncan, Flockhart and Co., Edinburgh and London


Liquid chloroform was used as an anaesthetic from the late 1840s until the 1950s. The liquid would be dropped onto a cloth face mask and the vapours inhaled by the patient. Devices to administer chloroform, giving control over the concentration of the anaesthetic agent and to use chloroform in combination with other gases and liquids such as ether were developed from the 1870s onwards. During the First World War, anaesthetics became recognised as a speciality. Rather than a general approach, anaesthetics became tailored to each patient.

Measurements:
overall: 160 mm 29 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
glass , cork , cardboard and paper
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt93
type:
bottles
Tin boxes containing sterile catgut

Tin boxes containing sterile catgut

6 black cylindrical tin boxes containing sealed glass tubes of sterile catgut, originally twelve per box by S. Maw Son and Sons, London


Used to suture wounds and during operations, catgut was made from the intestines of sheep. There are numerous theories as to reasoning for the catgut name, including being taken from a stringed musical instrument called a kit, where similar materials were used. Sterilised by heat or chemicals before being used to prevent infection, catgut stitches were eventually absorbed by the body, meaning additional operations were not required. By the 1940s, catgut was replaced by synthetic fibres.

Measurements:
overall: 76 mm 28 mm, .06 kg
Materials:
tin , glass and catgut
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt94
type:
sutures
Tin boxes containing sterile silk

Tin boxes containing sterile silk

6 white tin boxes containing sealed glass tubes of sterile silk, originally twelve per box, by S. Maw Son and Sons, London


Used to suture wounds and during operations, silk could not be absorbed by the body, meaning additional operations were required. By treating with heat or chemicals, the silk was sterilied to prevent infection being introduced into a person's body. By the 1940s, silk was replaced by synthetic fibres.

Materials:
tin , glass and silk
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt95
type:
sutures
Can for methylated spirit

Can for methylated spirit

Can for methylated spirit, for use with sterilizer, by Arnold and Sons, 123 Giltspur Street, 31 West Smithfield, London, England.

Measurements:
overall: 97 mm x 136 mm x 59 mm, 0.274 kg
Materials:
steel (metal)
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt96
type:
methylated spirit cans
Padlock and key

Padlock and key

Padlock and key, by Willen


Locking a surgical instrument set or field pannier is important to prevent items going missing during transport between sites and for security.

Materials:
steel
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt97
type:
padlocks
Dredgers, containing iodoform powder

Dredgers, containing iodoform powder

Two cylindrical vulcanite dredgers containing iodoform powder

Materials:
vulcanite
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt98
type:
dredgers
Dripper bottles for chloroform

Dripper bottles for chloroform

Two empty glass dripper bottles for chloroform, each in cardboard box


Liquid chloroform was used as an anaesthetic from the late 1840s until the 1950s. The liquid would be dropped onto a cloth face mask and the vapours inhaled by the patient. Devices to administer chloroform, giving control over the concentration of the anaesthetic agent and to use chloroform in combination with other gases and liquids such as ether were developed from the 1870s onwards. During the First World War, anaesthetics became recognised as a speciality. Rather than a general approach, anaesthetics became tailored to each patient.

Materials:
glass and cardboard
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt99
type:
dropper bottles
Saline infusion apparatus

Saline infusion apparatus

Saline infusion apparatus, in metal box


Developed in 1884, saline infusion replaced milk as a blood substitute. Huge blood loss can lead to shock – where the hear cannot pump enough blood to the body. Without blood, many of the body’s organs shut down. However, during the First World War, the first blood banks were created by Oswald Hope Robertson. This was thanks to a citrate-glucose solution which prevented blood clotting, developed by Francis Rous and J R Turner in 1916.

Materials:
box, metal , apparatus, glass and apparatus, rubber
Object Number:
1981-1850 Pt100
type:
saline infusion apparatus