Piorry monaural stethoscope, English, 1834-1840
René Laennec (1781-1826) invented the monaural stethoscope in 1816. It was devised as a diagnostic tool to listen to the heart and breathing in the human body. His design was modified by others over time. This example was developed by pioneering French physician Pierre Piorry (1794-1879). It is made of wood with a metal inner tube. The Piorry-type stheoscope is considered to be the first easily portable stethoscope.
The holes in the stem are a further modification attributed to distinguished British surgeon Dr William Crowfoot. The plug was removed when listening to the lungs. It was retained when listening to the heart.