The London Midland & Scottish Railway (LMS) was formed in 1 January 1923 under the Railways Act of 1921 which led to the grouping of over 120 separate railway companies, including London and North Western Railway, Midland Railway, Furness Railway, Glasgow and South Western Railway, Highland Railway, North Staffordshire Railway and the Caledonian Railway as well as other subsidiary companies. The principal routes were the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line, which linked London, the industrial Midlands and North-West of England, and Scotland to which they principally delivered freight. The company was nationalised on 1 January 1948 to become part of British Railways.