Étienne Jules Marey 1829 - 1904

born in:
Beaune, Côte-d'Or, Burgundy, France

French physiologist who invented the sphygmograph, an instrument for recording graphically the features of the pulse and variations in blood pressure in 1860. His basic instrument, with modifications, is still used today. Chronophotographer (photographic study of movement) and animated photography pioneer, inventor of chronophotographic gun in 1882.

Étienne-Jules Marey established the first private laboratory for experimental physiology in Paris. He developed or improved many instruments for physiological research. Some of them, like the sphygmograph for measuring blood pressure, are the forerunners of the instruments used in medical practice today. He studied medicine in Paris and became a professor at the Paris Collège de France, and president of the French Academy of Sciences in 1895.

Marey is well known for his work on the movement of humans and animals. He was one of the first scientists to use the then recently invented medium of film for this work, developing techniques such as slow-motion capture to record a large variety of movements, from galloping horses and flying birds to smoke trails.