‘The New Testament, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans’ printed in Frere tactile system for the blind, 1848

James Hatley Frere

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Braille book titled: ?The New Testament, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans?, by Jas. H. Frere, ESQ., United
Science Museum Group
© The Board of Trustees of the Science Museum

‘The New Testament, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans’, by Jas. H. Frere, ESQ. [James Hatley Frere (1779-1866)], United Kingdom, 1848 printed in the Frere tactile or stenographic system for the blind developed by writer James Hatley Frere (1779–1866).

Writer James Hatley Frere (1779–1866) was interested in education and around 1838 he developed a tactile or stenographic type system for teaching the blind to read. Frere developed this system using feedback from “a very clever blind man” who suggested several important changes. Frere’s system was developed before the Braille system was introduced to the UK. Frere was one of many alternative systems to the Braille system, which did not become the near-universal tactile system of teaching the blind to read until the late 1800s.


Printing & Writing
Object Number:
braille plate
Office of Phonetic Books for the Blind

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