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These objects represent a vast range of geophysical phenomena and surveying techniques—seismology, gravitation, atmospheric electricity, tide monitoring and prediction and geomagnetism—dating from the discipline's beginnings in the late 19th century.
Replica of Lightning Conductor by Benjamin Franklin, United States, 1730-1760
1730-1760 (original); 1931-1939 (replica)
Model of Henry Cavendish's Torsion Balance Gravitational Apparatus, 1798
1798 (original); 1977 (model)